Role of macronutrients and suitability of upcoming dietary trends for Asian adults with type 2 diabetes
Dharini Krishnan1, Valangaiman Sriram Manasa2, Rajagopal Gayathri3, Shanmugham Shobana3, Viswanathan Mohan4
1 D.V. Living Science Enterprises Private Limited, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Foods Nutrition and Dietetics Research, Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India; Department of Diabetology, Dr. Mohan’s Diabetes Specialities Centre, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Department of Foods Nutrition and Dietetics Research, Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
4 Department of Diabetology, Dr. Mohan’s Diabetes Specialities Centre, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Dr. Dharini Krishnan
D.V. Living Science Enterprises Private Limited, 8A, Bishop Wallers Avenue East, Mylapore, Chennai 600004, Tamil Nadu.
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Medical nutrition therapy interventions among type 2 diabetes patients administered by registered dieticians are said to be beneficial to the extent of reducing glycated hemoglobin by 1%–2%. Despite patient-centered dietary interventions, adherence continues to remain a challenge in the Indian setting due to the carbohydrate-rich dietary pattern, dietary myths coupled with lack of nutritional awareness, poor literacy, financial burden, and lack of motivation. On the contrary, the evolution of “FAD” diets through drastic dietary changes present individuals with type 2 diabetes with a possibility of reversal of the disease further increasing the nutritional dilemma. These FAD diets extend beyond being mere trends and show improvements in several biochemical processes by reducing the intake of calories either through restriction (very low-calorie diet) or fasting (intermittent fasting) or low carbohydrate diets up to one year. This article by evaluating the suitability of these promising diets to Indian adults with type 2 diabetes aimed to provide evidence that could improve diabetes-related dietary knowledge. Through this narrative review, we conclude that a single drastic dietary modification as seen in very low-calorie diets (≤ 800 kcal/day) or the low-carbohydrate diet (≤ 75 g/d) is not suitable for Indians and such dietary measures will further hamper the sustainability of prescribed diets. The future directions in diet and disease would be to develop clinical trials that will show the effectiveness of dietary regimens constituting optimal energy deficit and macronutrient balances that will contribute to the remission of disease while preventing macronutrient deficiencies and relapse in the dietary regimen.