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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 391-400

Vitamin D deficiency and diseases: A review from Pakistan


1 Department of Research, Baqai Institute of Diabetology and Endocrinology, Baqai Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan
2 Clinical Biochemistry and Psychopharmacology Research Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
3 Biochemistry Department, Baqai Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan; Baqai Institute of Diabetology and Endocrinology, Baqai Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan
4 Baqai Institute of Diabetology and Endocrinology, Baqai Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Asher Fawwad
Biochemistry Department, Baqai Medical University, Karachi.
Pakistan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jod.jod_32_21

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Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is claimed to be associated with many diseases in the world population. Many studies reported that vitamin D deficiency is quite prevalent in Pakistan. The aim of this review is to describe the current status of vitamin D deficiency in healthy individuals and in different disease conditions in this country. Materials and Methods: Search engines such as “Google Scholar,” “Medline,” and “PubMed” were used by applying key words such as vitamin D deficiency and different disease conditions in the Pakistani population. In this study, people with vitamin D levels less than 30 ng/mL were reported as being vitamin D deficient. Results: A total of 82 studies were included: Among these, 12 studies showed vitamin levels less than 30 ng/mL in healthy individuals (male and female) and 70 studies in different disease conditions. It was found that about 64.6% of healthy subjects had vitamin D levels less than 30 ng/ml. Moreover, 70 studies showed vitamin D deficiency in some diseases, such as musculoskeletal, bone, and periodontal problems, nursing mothers and children, tuberculosis (TB), diabetes, cardiovascular problems, and some type of cancers. Conclusion: The current status of vitamin D deficiency in the healthy population and in several diseases and conditions is thoroughly discussed in this review. This review could be helpful in understanding the status of vitamin D and the different aspects of vitamin D research in this population.


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